THE COUNSELING MODEL
EXPLAINED
HISTORICAL NOTES
Five Temperaments  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Five temperaments a theory in psychology, that expands upon the "Four Temperaments"
proposed in ancient medical theory.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Temperaments

History and The Ancient Four Temperaments
Five Temperament theory has its roots in the ancient four humors theory of the Greek Historian
Hippocrates (460-370 BC), who believed certain human behaviors were caused by body fluids (called
"humors"): blood (sanguis), [yellow] bile (cholera or Gk. χολη, kholé) black bile (μελας, melas, "black", +
χολη, kholé, "bile"); and phlegm. Next, Galen (131-200 AD) developed the first typology of temperament in
his dissertation De Temperamentis, and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in
humans. In The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna (980-1037) then extended the theory of temperaments to
encompass "emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral attitudes, self-awareness, movements and dreams."
[1]

This is also related to the classical elements of air, water, earth, and fire; as sanguine, phlegmatic,
melancholic, and choleric, respectively.

Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654) disregarded the idea of fluids as defining human behavior, and
Maimonides (1135-1204), Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Alfred Adler (1879-1937) and Ivan Pavlov (1849-
1936) all theorized on the four temperaments and greatly shaped our modern theories of temperament.
Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was one of the first psychologists to analyze personality differences using a
psycho-statistical method (factor analysis), and his research led him to believe that temperament is
biologically based.


Development of related "two factor" models and the regaining popularity of the ancient temperaments
From the beginning, with Galen's ancient temperaments, it was observed that pairs of temperaments
shared certain traits in common.

Sanguine quick, impulsive, and relatively short-lived reactions.
Phlegmatic a longer response-delay, but short-lived response
choleric short response time-delay, but response sustained for a relatively long time.
Melancholic (Also called "Melancholy") long response time-delay, response sustained at length, if not,
seemingly, permanently. [2]

Therefore, it was evident that the sanguine and choleric shared a common trait: quickness of response,
while the melancholy and phlegmatic shared the opposite, a longer response. The melancholy and
choleric, however, shared a sustained response, and the sanguine and phlegmatic shared a short-lived
response. That meant, that the Choleric and melancholy both would tend to hang on to emotions like
anger, and thus appear more serious and critical than the fun-loving sanguine, and the peaceful
phlegmatic. However, the choleric would be characterized by quick expressions of anger, while the
melancholy would build up anger slowly, silently, before exploding. Also, the melancholy and sanguine
would be sort of "opposites", as the choleric and phlegmatic, since they have opposite traits.

As the twentieth century progressed, numerous other instruments were devised measuring not only
temperament, but also various individual aspects of personality and behavior, and several began using
factors that would correspond to the delay and sustain behaviors; usually, forms of Extroversion and a
developing category of people versus task focus (eventually embodied as "Agreeableness").

Examples include DiSC assessment system, and Social styles. In both of these, the four behaviors or
styles resembled the key characteristics of the ancient four temperaments: The Choleric's extroversion
and seriousness; the Melancholy's introversion and seriousness; the Sanguine's extroversion and
sociability, and the Phlegmatic's peacefulness.

As personality typing increased, Christian writer and speaker Tim LaHaye helped repopularize the ancient
temperaments beginning in his books.[3][4][5] The latter two used illustrations of the temperaments as
cartoon characters, "Martin Melancholy", "Sparky Sanguine", "Rocky Choleric" and "Phil Phlegmatic", to
help the reader visualize the basic characteristics of the temperaments.[6]

Another addition to the two factor models was the creation of a 10 by 10 square grid developed by Robert
R. Blake and Jane Mouton in their Managerial Grid Model introduced in 1964. This matrix graded from 0-9,
the factors of "Concern for People" and "Concern for Production", allowing a moderate range of scores,
which yielded five "leadership styles". The Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) used a version
of this with "Assertiveness" and "Cooperativeness" as the two factors, and an intermediate score in both
scales likewise resulting in a fifth mode directly in the center of the grid.

From Four to Five
The low scores in both "wanted" and "expressed" would correspond to the Melancholy. A high score in
"expressed" with a low score in "wanted" corresponds to Choleric. A high score on both scales
corresponds to the Sanguine.

So the temperaments were divided between introverts, extroverts, and in the other dimension, "relationship-
oriented", and "task-oriented". In the older model, the fourth temperament, Phlegmatic, had generally been
regarded as "introverted" like the Melancholy, yet more "agreeable", like the Sanguine. For example, the
"slow response/short-lived sustain" of the original conception, where it shares one factor with the
Sanguine, and the other with the Melancholy. In the other instruments using people/task-orientation, the
type that holds the corresponding place in respect to the other types (such as Social Styles' "Amiable" or
Adler's "Leaning") is also generally correlated with the Phlegmatic in comparisons.

However, while the Phlegmatic is not as extroverted as the Sanguine and Choleric, nor as serious as the
Melancholy and Choleric; he is neither as introverted as the Melancholy, nor as relationship-oriented as
the Sanguine. Thus the Phlegmatic (which was even once defined by critics as the absence of
temperament), is basically a moderate temperament, and hence in this new system it winds up having only
a mid-range score in responsiveness and expressiveness. That placed it directly in the center (like TKI's
"Compromising" mode or Blake and Mouton's "Middle of the Road"). The Phlegmatic person is by
definition, ambiverted, being capable of interaction with people, but overall, can "take them or leave them".
This left a range of people with a high "wanted" score in the areas of control, inclusion and affection, (like
a Sanguine) but a low "expressed" score (like a Melancholy); the true "relationship-oriented introverts".
Other researchers had been suspecting that there might be a fifth temperament, but most simply regarded
it as a "passive sanguine."

Finally, in the 1980s, the National Christian Counselors Association, Inc. Founders Richard G. and Phyllis
J. Arno.[7], after extensive research, identified a separate temperament, which they called Supine, which
means “with the face upwards,” like a servant looking up to his/her master. The Arnos refer to it as “the
serving temperament,” because the Supine “feels” that their only value is to serve others. Supines like and
need people; however, they have a fear of rejection and do not initiate.

Supines are identified by strengths, such as a desire to serve, liking people, and having a gentle spirit.
Their weaknesses include expecting others to read their mind (indirect behavior), harboring anger as "hurt
feelings," and feelings of powerlessness. They are generally open to receiving affection, but have trouble
initiating. Other profilers who use similar systems still refer to it as "Introverted Sanguine."


[edit] Comparison of Fifth Temperament to the Phlegmatic
The Phlegmatic also is peaceful at heart, and is one reason the Phlegmatic had held the place in the older
four temperament model the Supine holds in the five temperament model. The difference is that the
Supine is more "needy" for acceptance (or control) from people, yet less able to initiate and express this
need to them than the Phlegmatic. Supines are often frustrated because they expect people to know they
want interaction, while the Phlegmatic expresses a moderate need, and wants only the same moderate
amount in return.

While the other systems highlighted the Phlegmatic's "introverted" and "agreeable" aspects, the Arno
Profile System (APS) places a greater focus on its low energy reserve, which causes overall sluggishness,
stubbornness, indifference, and a "dry, wry humor" (replacing the more energized emotions of the other
temperaments). These are the familiar traits which defined the temperament in terms of "phlegm" in the
first place, and here further distinguishes it from the Supine, which is also described as "slow-paced" , but
nevertheless does have a substantial amount of emotional energy. (The Melancholy is also described as
slow paced). This is also what causes the Phlegmatic peacefulness (such as being a negotiator for other
people's conflicts), and having the least problems with anger and other negative emotions of the
temperaments. Phlegmatic like to "take the path of least resistance" to protect their low energy.

Another big difference, is that four temperament theories such as LaHaye's often depict the Phlegmatic as
being very fearful (according to LaHaye, "he is a worrier by nature", which is what keeps him from making
full use of his potential). But in the APS, it is described as having very little fear. (Fear for the Phlegmatic is
present primarily in the area of codependency). The Supine, however, does generally have a lot of fear.

Rather than being considered "relationship-oriented" as the Supine is, and as other instruments regarded
the Phlegmatic or its corresponding types; the Phlegmatic is generally described in the APS manuals as
"task-oriented", with the clarification that they can relate to people at times, as well. The APS also
considers the Phlegmatic "both introverted and extroverted", while the Supine, sometimes also described
in that fashion, specifically "expresses as an introvert, and responds as an extrovert".


Driving Needs
Each of the four corner temperaments has a driving need that energizes its behavior. For the Melancholy,
it's fear of rejection and/or the unknown. He has a low self esteem and figuring that others don't like him,
he rejects them first before they reject him. The Supine also has low self esteem, but is driven to try to gain
acceptance by liking and serving others. The Sanguine is driven by the need for attention, and tries to sell
himself through his charm, and accepts others before they can reject him. His self esteem crashes if he is
nevertheless rejected. Yet, he will regain the confidence to keep trying to impress others. The Choleric is
motivated by his goals, in which other people are tools to be used. The Phlegmatic lack of a driving need
becomes his driving need: to protect his low energy reserve.

The driving needs are important in the APS, because as has been noted above, various behaviors in a
particular temperament can be similar to one or more other temperaments, but they are actually
undertaken for different reasons. This is key to understanding temperament.


Simple emotions of the five temperaments: Sanguine (top right), Choleric (bottom right), Melancholy
(bottom left), and Phlegmatic (centre), with the new temperament Supine (top left) and Phlegmatic blends
in between.

Temperament blends
The four-temperament model had 12 mixtures of the four temperaments, such as Mel-Chlor, San-Mel, etc.
The order of temperaments in these pairs was based on which temperament was the "dominant" one. This
new model has two types of "blends": across the three areas of inclusion, control and affection, and within
each of those areas. "Across" the three areas, a person can be one temperament in inclusion, another
one in control, and yet another in affection. So a "San-Mel" in the older system would be someone
dominantly Sanguine, but with some Melancholy traits. The new system, however, handily tells us where
the different temperamental traits lie: namely, the three "areas of need"! The new system does not use
designations like "San-Mel"; but rather "Sanguine-Melancholy-Sanguine"; listing all three in the order of
Inclusion, Control and Affection. This yields 125 (5×5×5) blends of basic temperaments overall!

Within one of those areas however, there are only eight blends of the Phlegmatic temperament with the
other four. These blends lie between adjacent temperaments, mid-range vertically or horizontally.
Phlegmatic Melancholy and Phlegmatic Choleric lie between Melancholy and Choleric. Choleric Phlegmatic
and Sanguine Phlegmatic lie between Sanguine and Choleric, and so on. The order of the temperaments
in these pairs is not determined by "dominance" of one, but rather according to "expressed" and "wanted"
behavior, respectively. A Phlegmatic Melancholy in Inclusion, for instance, expresses himself as a
Phlegmatic but responds or wants the same as a Melancholy. This person is moderately more sociable
than a pure Melancholy, but otherwise does not have much of a real need for interaction. A Melancholy
Phlegmatic expresses himself as a Melancholy but wants the same as a Phlegmatic. This person has a
moderate need for interaction, but is still not very expressive of it. These types of blends are different from
the older system's "Phleg-Mel" and "Mel-Phleg", though those two blends may be a Phlegmatic blend in
one or more of the three areas of the five-temperament theory. (If the eight Phlegmatic blends are counted
separately from the primary five, the total number of possible temperament combinations is 13³ or 2197!)
"Compulsive" variations of the four outer temperaments lie in the squares furthest in the corner of those
areas of the grid. These are the most driven forms of the temperaments. Since Phlegmatic is directly in the
middle, it has no Compulsive variation, since it is by nature the opposite of Compulsive.